Special Phenomena

Within most branches of Earth Science there are regularly occuring large-scale natural phenomena that are clearly identifiable. Examples of such phenomena are listed below. A comprehensive Earth Systems Model will need to account for such special phenomena in order for the model to be given high credance, and for it to be considered complete and accurate.

View details Special Phenomena

The Atmosphere: El Niño, El Niño Modoki, La Niña (ENSO) Monsoon Intra-Seasonal Oscillation (MISO) Southern Annular Mode (SAM)
Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North American Mode (NAM) Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)
Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) Normal Modes Gravity Waves Rossby Waves
Kelvin Waves South Pacific Convergent Zone (SPCZ) Polar Vortex Jet Streams
Heat Flow: convection, conduction, radiation Convection Evaporation Wind Walls
Windstorms Other Winds Thunderstorms Squall Lines
Storm Tracks & Storm Surges Turbulence Tornadoes The Coriolis Effect
Hot Towers Tropical Cyclones, Hurricanes & Typhoons Precipitation Atmospheric Rivers
Meteotsunamis Rainbows Green flashes The Carnegie Curve
Aerosols Atmospheric Circulation Monsoons Blocking
Teleconnections Pink Noise Forcing Factors Feedbacks
Haze Heatwaves The Land Desertification
Droughts Dust and Sandstorms Dunes Wildfires, Bushfires, Peat Fires, Debris Flows
Floods Inundated Land Thermal Springs Mudslides & Landslides
The Cryosphere: Properties of Water & Ice Snowpack Avalanches
Ice Caps Ice Ages Glaciers Glacial Cycles
Interglacial Periods The Ocean: Icebergs Ice Sheets & Ice Shelves
Thermohaline Circulation & named local currents Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP)/ Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) Equatorial Thermocline
Ocean Eddies, Gyres and Upwelling Undersea Rivers Undersea Craters Undersea Blue Holes
Ocean Dead Zones Rifts and Seamounts Water Waves Tsunamis
Waterspouts Seiches (Lake Tsunamis) Tides Sea Level Rise (SLR)
The Biosphere: Gaia Hypothesis Great Oxygenation Event Tipping Points
Mass Extinction Events The Solid Earth: Elastodynamic Waves Electro-Magnetism:
Properties of Electro-Magnetism Schumann Resonances