Special Phenomena

Within most branches of Earth Science there are regularly occuring large-scale natural phenomena that are clearly identifiable. Examples of such phenomena are listed below. A comprehensive Earth Systems Model will need to account for such special phenomena in order for the model to be given high credance, and for it to be considered complete and accurate.

View details Special Phenomena

The Atmosphere: El Niño, El Niño Modoki, La Niña (ENSO) Monsoon Intra-Seasonal Oscillation (MISO) Southern Annular Mode (SAM)
Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North American Mode (NAM) Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)
Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) Normal Modes Gravity Waves
Rossby Waves Kelvin Waves South Pacific Convergent Zone (SPCZ) Polar Vortex
Jet Streams Heat Flow: convection, conduction, radiation Convection Evaporation
Wind Walls Windstorms Other Winds Thunderstorms
Squall Lines Storm Tracks & Storm Surges Turbulence Tornadoes
The Coriolis Effect Hot Towers Tropical Cyclones, Hurricanes & Typhoons Precipitation
Atmospheric Rivers Meteotsunamis Rainbows Green flashes
The Carnegie Curve Aerosols Atmospheric Circulation Monsoons
Blocking Teleconnections Pink Noise Forcing Factors
Feedbacks Haze Heatwaves The Land
Desertification Droughts Dust and Sandstorms Dunes
Wildfires, Bushfires, Peat Fires, Coal Seam Fires, Postfire Debris Flows Floods Inundated Land Soil Moisture
Thermal Springs Mudslides & Landslides Wood Cascades The Cryosphere:
Properties of Water, Ice & Snow Snowpack, snowmelt Avalanches Ice Caps
Ice Ages Glaciers Glacial Cycles Interglacial Periods
Seas & Oceans: Icebergs Ice Sheets & Ice Shelves Thermohaline Circulation & named local currents
Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP)/ Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) Equatorial Thermocline Ocean Eddies, Gyres and Upwelling
Undersea Rivers Undersea Craters Undersea Blue Holes Ocean Dead Zones
Rifts and Seamounts Water Waves Rogue Waves Tsunamis
Waterspouts Wind Setdown Seiches (Lake Tsunamis) Tides
Sea Level Rise (SLR) The Biosphere: Gaia Hypothesis Great Oxygenation Event
Tipping Points Mass Extinction Events The Solid Earth: Elastodynamic Waves
Electro-Magnetism: Properties of Electro-Magnetism Schumann Resonances