Special Phenomena

Within most branches of Earth Science there are regularly occuring large-scale natural phenomena that are clearly identifiable. Examples of such phenomena are listed below. A comprehensive Earth Systems Model will need to account for such special phenomena in order for the model to be given high credance, and for it to be considered complete and accurate.

View details Special Phenomena

The Atmosphere: El Niño, El Niño Modoki, La Niña (ENSO) Monsoon Intra-Seasonal Oscillation (MISO) Southern Annular Mode (SAM)
Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North American Mode (NAM) Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)
Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) Normal Modes Gravity Waves
Rossby Waves Kelvin Waves South Pacific Convergent Zone (SPCZ) Polar Vortex
Jet Streams Heat Flow: convection, conduction, radiation Convection Evaporation
Wind Walls Windstorms Other Winds Thunderstorms
Squall Lines Storm Tracks & Storm Surges Turbulence Tornadoes
The Coriolis Effect Hot Towers Tropical Cyclones, Hurricanes & Typhoons Precipitation
Atmospheric Rivers Meteotsunamis Rainbows Green flashes
The Carnegie Curve Aerosols Atmospheric Circulation Monsoons
Blocking Teleconnections Pink Noise Forcing Factors
Feedbacks Haze Heatwaves The Land
Desertification Droughts Dust and Sandstorms Dunes
Wildfires, Bushfires, Peat Fires, Debris Flows Floods Inundated Land Thermal Springs
Mudslides & Landslides The Cryosphere: Properties of Water & Ice Snowpack, snowmelt
Avalanches Ice Caps Ice Ages Glaciers
Glacial Cycles Interglacial Periods The Ocean: Icebergs
Ice Sheets & Ice Shelves Thermohaline Circulation & named local currents Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP)/ Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)
Equatorial Thermocline Ocean Eddies, Gyres and Upwelling Undersea Rivers Undersea Craters
Undersea Blue Holes Ocean Dead Zones Rifts and Seamounts Water Waves
Tsunamis Waterspouts Seiches (Lake Tsunamis) Tides
Sea Level Rise (SLR) The Biosphere: Gaia Hypothesis Great Oxygenation Event
Tipping Points Mass Extinction Events The Solid Earth: Elastodynamic Waves
Electro-Magnetism: Properties of Electro-Magnetism Schumann Resonances