Special Phenomena

The Atmosphere:



El Niño, El Niño Modoki, La Niña (ENSO)



Monsoon Intra-Seasonal Oscillation (MISO)



Southern Annular Mode (SAM)



Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)

The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the major fluctuation in tropical weather on weekly to monthly timescales. The MJO can be characterized as an eastward moving "pulse" of cloud and rainfall near the equator that typically recurs every 30 to 60 days. Read more...


Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North American Mode (NAM)



Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO)



Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)



Antarctic Oscillation (AAO)



Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO)



Normal Modes



Gravity Waves



Rossby Waves



Kelvin Waves



South Pacific Convergent Zone (SPCZ)



Polar Vortex



Jet Streams



Heat Flow: convection, conduction, radiation



Convection



Evaporation



Wind Walls



Windstorms



Other Winds



Thunderstorms



Squall Lines



Storm Tracks & Storm Surges

Storm tracks are identified by tracking sea level pressure minima. Read more...


Turbulence



Tornadoes



The Coriolis Effect



Hot Towers



Tropical Cyclones, Hurricanes & Typhoons



Precipitation



Atmospheric Rivers



Meteotsunamis

Small, weather-driven tsunami caused by changes in air pressure created by fast-moving severe thunderstorms, tropical storms, squalls or other storm fronts. Read more...


Rainbows



Green flashes



The Carnegie Curve



Aerosols



Atmospheric Circulation



Monsoons



Blocking



Teleconnections



Pink Noise



Forcing Factors



Feedbacks



Haze



Heatwaves



The Land



Desertification



Droughts

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