Earth's Core, Mantle, Crust, Continents, Ocean Basins, Plumes & Plate Tectonics

The solid Earth is made up from multiple layers - each layer exhibiting its own set of characteristics and physical processes: the Inner Core, Outer Core, Mantle, Crust, Continents & Ocean Basins. Our understanding of the interaction between these layers is however, embryonic.

Experiments cast doubt on how the Earth was formed

Iron isotope evidence for very rapid accretion and differentiation  of the proto-Earth

The Layered Earth  - Asthenosphere  -  Lithosphere - The concept of a 3D Earth: a living dynamic planet

Radioactivity  -  Tidal Heating  -  Mantle Convection  -  Visco-elasticity  -  Rheology - Geoflow

Earthquakes - Volcanic Eruptions  -  Hotspots

Explorers find passage to Earth's Dark Age 

Seismic study reveals huge amount of water dragged into Earth's interior  

Earth's interior cycles a contributor to long-term sea-level rise and climate change

Virtual time machine of Earth's geology now in the cloud    High tech opens up Earth's secrets

Deep sea sediments reveal solar system chaos: an advance in dating geologic archives

Scientists have used groundbreaking technology to figure out how the earth looked one billion years ago

Going underground: why geophysics matter    The Unsolid Earth    Targeting mysteries of deep Earth    

Journey to the center of the Earth    A journey to the center of the Earth?

Interdisciplinary look inside the Earth’s interior

Promising new technique for probing Earth's deep interior

Researchers develop new model of Earth's dynamic interior

Crashing waves on shorelne used to study Earth's interiorr

Neutrinos from Earth’s interior measure the planet’s radiogenic heating

Could Natural Nuclear Reactors Have Boosted Life on This and Other Planets?

Discovery of new iron oxides points to large oxygen source inside the Earth         

The GPlates portal: cloud-based interactive 3D visualization of global geophysical and geological data

Wobbles in Earth's rotation explained    Taking Earth's inner temperature    

Delving inside Earth from space   Mapping the Moho with GOCE    Gravity map reveals Earth's extremes    

Building blocks of early Earth survived the collision that created the Moon

Earth's most abundant material finally has a name

Inner Core:

Inner Core    Heart of Earth's inner core revealed    Video of inner inner core    

Earth's enigmatic inner core    Earth's inner core is young at heart

Earth's inner core is doing something weird    

Study indicates Earth's inner core was formed 1-1.5bn years ago

Trickle-down is the solution to the planetary core formation problem

Research journey to the center of the Earth

Constraints on Earth's inner core composition inferred from measurements of sound velocity

New idea tackles Earth core puzzle    A clue to the Earth's ancient core

Ironing Out the Details of the Earth's Core

Geochemical detectives use lab mimicry to look back in times

New insights solve 300-year-old problem: the dynamics of Earth's core

Earth's core far hotter than thought    Deep Earth heat surprise    

Iron melt network helped grow Earth's core    Iron in the Earth's core weakens before melting

Recent changes of the Earth's core derived from satellite observations of magnetic and gravity fields 

Research lends new view of the Earth's core     New insight into the temperature of deep Earth

Earth’s core deprived of oxygen    Oxygen to the core    

First global antineutrino emission map highlights Earth's core energy

Earth's core affects length of day

Outer Core:

Outer Core       

Leaky at the core

 Patchy weather in the centre of the Earth

Scientists detect unexpected widesprerad structures near Earth's core

Mantle, Plumes:  

Mantle and Upper Mantle

Congestion in the Earth's mantle

Mantle plumes crack continents

Magma in mantle has deep impact

Exploring the last white spot on Earth

Lower mantle chemistry breakthrough

Stretchy slabs found in the deep Earth

More detailed picture of Earth's mantle

Lava rock sheds light on Earth formation

Ancient Earth crust stored in deep mantle

Developing a picture of the Earth's mantle

Stable movement centers in Earth's mantle 

Volcanic rocks hold clues to Earth's interior

A significantly hotter mantle beneath Iceland

Mantle plumes and convection visualizations

X-rays illuminate the origin of volcanic hotspots

The $1 billion mission to reach the Earth's mantle

Mysterious deep-Earth seismic signature explained

New study upends a theory of how Earth's mantle flows

Mineral measurements could explain mantle seismology

On the relative motions of long-lived Pacific mantle plumes

Large, rare diamonds reveal inner working of Earth's mantle

Structural change in molten basalt at deep mantle conditions

Location of upwelling in Earth's mantle discovered to be stable

New model of Earth's interior reveals clues to hotspot volcanoes

New understanding of Earth's mantle beneath the Pacific Ocean

Newly discovered flux in the earth may solve missing-mantle mystery

Geoscientists explain puzzling pockets of rock deep in Earth's mantle

Mathematician helps deepen understanding of Earth's mysterious mantle

Drilling into Earth's mantle, a holy grail of geology, set to begin once again

A stiff new layer in earth's mantle? Earth's interior hotter than previously believed

Crust, Plate Tectonics :

Earth likely began with a solid shell

Why do tectonic plates move?

When and how did plate tectonics begin?

Late Cenozoic unification of East and West Antarctica

Developing plate tectonics theory from oceanic subduction zones to collision orogens

Ancient drop of water rewrites Earth's history 

New model suggests lost continents for early Earth 

A thorny debate in plate tectonics may finally be resolved

'Lubricating' sediments were critical in making the cony=tinents move 

Earth tectonics as seen by GOCE-enhanced satellite gravity gradient imaging 

Geophysicists uncover new evidence for an alternative style of plate tectonics

Earth is missing a huge part of its crust. Now we may know why

Search for MH370 revealed ocean crust waves  

Determining the thickness of tectonic plates    Scientists discover new tectonic plate

Crust and Tectonics - How thick is the Earth's crust    Continental Drift/Plate Tectonics  -  Subduction

Microbes could influence geological processes as much as volcanoes

Rare view reveals how the Earth's crust forms    A voyage to the Earth's crust and back   

Great challenges in structural geology and tectonics    Tectonic plates' patterns revealed

Plate tectonics  -  Plate tectonic movement visualizations - How Earth got its tectonic plates

Scripps scientists discover 'lubricant' for Earth's tectonic plates    Zircon crystals reveal onset of plate tectonics

How plate tectonics started on Earth  Plate tectonics thanks to plumes   

What set the Earth's plates in motion?    New study zeros in on plate tectonics' start date

How cosmic crashes could have kickstarted plate tectonics

Plate tectonics could be essential for life    Does a planet need life to create continents?

Plate tectonics cannot explain dynamics of Earth and crust formation more than 3 billion years ago

Age of blueschist is not an indicator of the date of emergence of plate tectonics

A potentially major revision to the fundamental idea of plate tectonics

Map of the underworld may let us play plate tectonics in reverse

New database covers geometry of majority of world's subduction zones

Utrecht promotes interdisciplinary research into Earth's crust in Europe

Scientists simulate new mechanism of fluid flow in Earth's crust

Reading history from Afar    Age of Earth's lithosphere for Google Earth

Peridotite weathering is the missing ingredient of Earth's continental crust composition

Elemental constraints on the amount of recycled crust in the generation of mid-oceanic ridge basalts

Ocean Basins & their formation:

Fluids in the continental crust

Pacific plate shrinking as it cools

A grand tour of the Ocean Basins

World's oldest oceanic crust discovered

How the Earth's Pacific plates collapsed

The hunt for Earth's deep hidden oceans

Circulation of water in deep Earth's interior

Heat of mantle sets height of mid-ocean ridges

Deciphering the Bay of Bengal's tectonic origins 

Are we seeing a new ocean starting to form in Africa?  

Oceanic crust breakthrough: solving a magma mystery

There's as much water in Earth's mantle as in all the oceans

Massive ancient tectonic slab found beneath the Indian Ocean

Study hints that ancient Earth made its own water - geologically

Evidence of an extinct ocean basin detected beneath Greenland

Geological insights from Malaysian Airlines Flight MH370 search

Scientists detect evidence of 'oceans worth of water' in Earth's mantle   

Continental Evolution & Drift:

Solving the perplexing mystery of continental evolution    

Computer simulation sheds light on how Earth's continents were born

Alfred Wegener presented his revolutionary theory of continental drift 100 years ago

The 3D geophysical investigation of Middle Cretaceous to Paleocene - Northern Canada and Alaska 

A new theory on the formation of the oldest continents    Formation and evolution of the continental crust 

When continents collide - a  new twist to a 50 miilion-year-old tale    Solving an Earth-sized Jigsaw Puzzle

In 250 million years Earth might only have one continent    Constructive Collisions

Evidence falls into place for once and future supercontinents

Geophysicists find the crusty culprits behind sudden tectonic plate movements

Links within two supercontinents    Scientists discover how Pangea helped make coal

How do continents break up?    Big quake was part crustal plate break up   

Research links uplifting continents to crashes in biodiversity on Earth

The Americas:

Recent connection between North and South America reaffirmed 

Why do the Caribbean Islands arc?   

New insights into North America's midcontinent rift

Mass of warm rock rising beneath New England

Novel technique finds new features under United States    

Under California: an ancient tectonic plate

India joined with Asia 10 million years later than previously sought

Evidence of ancient 'lost continent' found in Indian Ocean

Australia-Antarctica-India breakup    Zealandia: Earth's hidden continent

Zealandia: scientists reveal secrets from first expedition


What sculpted Africa's margin?


Lost continent revealed in new reconstruction of the Mediterranean's geologic history 

Andalusian scientists reconstruct what the Gibralter Arc was like 9 million years ago   

Britain formed from three colliding continental land masses

Fragment of continental crust found under south east Iceland  


Ascent or no ascent?

The deep roots of catastrophe    The cause of the Earth's largest environmental catastrophe

A New Kind of Metal in the Deep Earth        

Magnesium oxide: from Earth to super-Earth

'Super-deep' diamonds may hold new information about Earth's interior