Earth's Core, Mantle, Crust, Continents, Ocean Basins, Plumes & Plate Tectonics

The solid Earth is made up from multiple layers - each layer exhibiting its own set of characteristics and physical processes: the Inner Core, Outer Core, Mantle, Crust, Continents & Ocean Basins. Our understanding of the interaction between these layers is however, embryonic.

Experiments cast doubt on how the Earth was formed

The Layered Earth  - Asthenosphere  -  Lithosphere - The concept of a 3D Earth: a living dynamic planet

Radioactivity  -  Tidal Heating  -  Mantle Convection  -  Visco-elasticity  -  Rheology - Geoflow

Earthquakes - Volcanic Eruptions  -  Hotspots

Explorers find passage to Earth's Dark Age 

Seismic study reveals huge amount of water dragged into Earth's interior  

Earth's interior cycles a contributor to long-term sea-level rise and climate change

Virtual time machine of Earth's geology now in the cloud    High tech opens up Earth's secrets

Deep sea sediments reveal solar system chaos: an advance in dating geologic archives

Scientists have used groundbreaking technology to figure out how the earth looked one billion years ago

Going underground: why geophysics matter    The Unsolid Earth    Targeting mysteries of deep Earth    

Journey to the center of the Earth    A journey to the center of the Earth?

Interdisciplinary look inside the Earth’s interior

Promising new technique for probing Earth's deep interior

Researchers develop new model of Earth's dynamic interior

Crashing waves on shorelne used to study Earth's interiorr

Neutrinos from Earth’s interior measure the planet’s radiogenic heating

Could Natural Nuclear Reactors Have Boosted Life on This and Other Planets?

Discovery of new iron oxides points to large oxygen source inside the Earth         

The GPlates portal: cloud-based interactive 3D visualization of global geophysical and geological data

Wobbles in Earth's rotation explained    

Delving inside Earth from space   Mapping the Moho with GOCE    Gravity map reveals Earth's extremes    

Building blocks of early Earth survived the collision that created the Moon

Earth's most abundant material finally has a name

Inner Core:

Inner Core    Heart of Earth's inner core revealed    Video of inner inner core    

Earth's enigmatic inner core    Earth's inner core is young at heart

Earth's inner core is doing something weird    

Study indicates Earth's inner core was formed 1-1.5bn years ago

Trickle-down is the solution to the planetary core formation problem

Research journey to the center of the Earth

Constraints on Earth's inner core composition inferred from measurements of sound velocity

New idea tackles Earth core puzzle    A clue to the Earth's ancient core

Ironing Out the Details of the Earth's Core

Geochemical detectives use lab mimicry to look back in times

New insights solve 300-year-old problem: the dynamics of Earth's core

Earth's core far hotter than thought    Deep Earth heat surprise    

Iron melt network helped grow Earth's core    Iron in the Earth's core weakens before melting

Recent changes of the Earth's core derived from satellite observations of magnetic and gravity fields 

Research lends new view of the Earth's core     New insight into the temperature of deep Earth

Earth’s core deprived of oxygen    Oxygen to the core    

First global antineutrino emission map highlights Earth's core energy

Earth's core affects length of day

Outer Core:

Outer Core    Developing a picture of the Earth's mantle     Patchy weather in the centre of the Earth

Leaky at the core

Mantle, Plumes:  

Mantle and Upper Mantle - Mantle plumes and convection visualizations

Congestion in the Earth's mantle    Ancient Earth crust stored in deep mantle

Geoscientists explain puzzling pockets of rock deep in Earth's mantle

More detailed picture of Earth's mantle

Stable movement centers in Earth's mantle

Mantle plumes crack continents

The hunt for Earth's deep hidden oceans

Circulation of water in deep Earth's interior

There's as much water in Earth's mantle as in all the oceans

Scientists detect evidence of 'oceans worth of water' in Earth's mantle

Location of upwelling in Earth's mantle discovered to be stable

On the relative motions of long-lived Pacific mantle plumes

Taking Earth's inner temperature

A significantly hotter mantle beneath Iceland

Heat of mantle sets height of mid-ocean ridges

A stiff new layer in earth's mantle? Earth's interior hotter than previously believed

New study upends a theory of how Earth's mantle flows

Mineral measurements could explain mantle seismology

Newly discovered flux in the earth may solve missing-mantle mystery    

New model of Earth's interior reveals clues to hotspot volcanoes

Structural change in molten basalt at deep mantle conditions

X-rays illuminate the origin of volcanic hotspots    

Volcanic rocks hold clues to Earth's interior

Magma in mantle has deep impact

Lava rock sheds light on Earth formation    

Exploring the last white spot on Earth

Mysterious deep-Earth seismic signature explained

Stretchy slabs found in the deep Earth    Lower mantle chemistry breakthrough

New understanding of Earth's mantle beneath the Pacific Ocean

Drilling into Earth's mantle, a holy grail of geology, set to begin once again

Large, rare diamonds reveal inner working of Earth's mantle

The $1 billion mission to reach the Earth's mantle

Crust, Plate Tectonics :

Earth likely began with a solid shell

Why do tectonic plates move?

When and how did plate tectonics begin?

Developing plate tectonics theory from oceanic subduction zones to collision orogens

Ancient drop of water rewrites Earth's history 

New model suggests lost continents for early Earth 

A thorny debate in plate tectonics may finally be resolved

'Lubricating' sediments were critical in making the cony=tinents move 

Earth tectonics as seen by GOCE-enhanced satellite gravity gradient imaging 

Geophysicists uncover new evidence for an alternative style of plate tectonics

Earth is missing a huge part of its crust. Now we may know why.   

Determining the thickness of tectonic plates    Scientists discover new tectonic plate

Crust and Tectonics - How thick is the Earth's crust    Continental Drift/Plate Tectonics  -  Subduction

Microbes could influence geological processes as much as volcanoes

Rare view reveals how the Earth's crust forms    A voyage to the Earth's crust and back   

Great challenges in structural geology and tectonics    Tectonic plates' patterns revealed

Plate tectonics  -  Plate tectonic movement visualizations - How Earth got its tectonic plates

Scripps scientists discover 'lubricant' for Earth's tectonic plates    Zircon crystals reveal onset of plate tectonics

How plate tectonics started on Earth  Plate tectonics thanks to plumes   

What set the Earth's plates in motion?    New study zeros in on plate tectonics' start date

How cosmic crashes could have kickstarted plate tectonics

Plate tectonics could be essential for life    Does a planet need life to create continents?

Plate tectonics cannot explain dynamics of Earth and crust formation more than 3 billion years ago

Age of blueschist is not an indicator of the date of emergence of plate tectonics

A potentially major revision to the fundamental idea of plate tectonics

Map of the underworld may let us play plate tectonics in reverse

New database covers geometry of majority of world's subduction zones

Utrecht promotes interdisciplinary research into Earth's crust in Europe

Scientists simulate new mechanism of fluid flow in Earth's crust

Reading history from Afar    Age of Earth's lithosphere for Google Earth

Peridotite weathering is the missing ingredient of Earth's continental crust composition

Ocean Basins:

A grand tour of the Ocean Basins

World's oldest oceanic crust discovered    Oceanic crust breakthrough: solving a magma mystery

Evidence of an extinct ocean basin detected beneath Greenland

Massive ancient tectonic slab found beneath the Indian Ocean

Geological insights from Malaysian Airlines Flight MH370 search

Deciphering the Bay of Bengal's tectonic origins

How the Earth's Pacific plates collapsed    Pacific plate shrinking as it cools

Late Cenozoic unification of East and West Antarctica 

Study hints that ancient Earth made its own water - geologically     Fluids in the continental crust

Continental Evolution & Drift:

Solving the perplexing mystery of continental evolution    

Computer simulation sheds light on how Earth's continents were born

The 3D geophysical investigation of Middle Cretaceous to Paleocene - Northern Canada and Alaska 

A new theory on the formation of the oldest continents    Formation and evolution of the continental crust 

When continents collide - a  new twist to a 50 miilion-year-old tale    Solving an Earth-sized Jigsaw Puzzle

In 250 million years Earth might only have one continent    Constructive Collisions

Evidence falls into place for once and future supercontinents

Geophysicists find the crusty culprits behind sudden tectonic plate movements

Alfred Wegener presented his revolutionary theory of continental drift 100 years ago

Links within two supercontinents    Scientists discover how Pangea helped make coal

How do continents break up?    Big quake was part crustal plate break up   

Research links uplifting continents to crashes in biodiversity on Earth

Recent connection between North and South America reaffirmed     

New insights into North America's midcontinent rift

Novel technique finds new features under United States    Under California: an ancient tectonic plate
India joined with Asia 10 million years later than previously sought

Evidence of ancient 'lost continent' found in Indian Ocean

Australia-Antarctica-India breakup    Zealndia: Earth's hidden continent

Fragment of continental crust found under south east Iceland

What sculpted Africa's margin?

Lost continent revealed in new reconstruction of the Mediterranean's geologic history 

Andalusian scientists reconstruct what the Gibralter Arc was like 9 million years ago   

Why do the Caribbean Islands arc?

Zealandia: scientists reveal secrets from first expedition

Britain formed from three colliding continental land masses   


Ascent or no ascent?

Mass of warm rock rising beneath New England   

The deep roots of catastrophe    The cause of the Earth's largest environmental catastrophe

A New Kind of Metal in the Deep Earth        

Magnesium oxide: from Earth to super-Earth

'Super-deep' diamonds may hold new information about Earth's interior