Oceans & Seas

The oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth's surface. They are critical to all life, and differentiate the Earth from most other planets in the known universe. The oceans are connected by a continuous flowing circulation current which plays a major role in driving Earth's climate.

Origins of the oceans:

Planet Earth makes its own water    Earth Oceans Were Homegrown

Projectile cannon experiments show how asteroids can deliver water

New questions on how the Earth's atmosphere and oceans formed   

New light shed on the origin of Earth's water    Oceans arrived early to Earth   

Origin of Earth's oceans     Our oceans' cosmic origins     Did Earth's oceans come from comets?

How did Earth get water? Scientists think they've solved longstanding mystery

Fresh evidence for how water reached Earth found in asteroid debris

Earth's water came from space dust during planetary formation

Astronomers finally find the answer to Earth's water mystery

Astronomers looking for clues to water's origins

Scientists theorize new origin story for Earth's water

Scientists solve a 14,000-year-old ocean mystery

The devolution of the seas - the consequences of oceanic destruction

Reconstructing the richness of pristine oceans

Ocean dynamics:

Oceans   Currents   Eddies   Gyres   Upwelling   Teaching Oceanography    The ocean below

Study proposes link between formation of supercontinents, strength of ocean tides

Machine learning identifies links between world's oceans

Unsupervised learning reveals geography of global ocean dynamical regions

New research shows how melting ice is affecting supplies of nutients to the sea  

If the Earth stood still    Forecast ocean variability   

Perpetual Ocean Video   Virtual Ocean    Ocean color web   New spin on ocean's role

How well-connected is the surface of the global ocean?

Why trace metals cling to the ocean's skin

New study identifies thermometer for the past global ocean

The modulation of oceanic moisture transport by the hemispheric annular modes

Functions of global ocean microbiome key to understanding environmental changes

Ocean currents push phytoplankton and pollution around the globe faster than thought

Ocean connections: an introduction to rising risks from a warming, changing ocean 

Toxic oceans may have delayed spread of complex life

Northern seas once pumped CO2 into Earth's atmosphere

Ocean health:

Oceans an dice are absorbing the brunt of climate change

The ocean and cryosphere in a changing climate - IPCC report

The UN World Ocean Assessment    Mapping salty waters

The future of the sea    An introduction to rising risks from a warming, changing ocean

Oceans suffering from sea sickness   Nature study highlights many paths to ocean health

Oxygen-starved oceans can take a million years to recover

Decline in global oceanic oxygen content during the past five decades

Threat from oxygen loss in oceans left off table in Paris talks    Ocean oxygen levels drop 2% in 50 years

UN World Ocean Assessment     Ocean Health Index    The ocean's sensitive skin

The state of the ocean 2013: perils, prognoses and perils    See human impact in an X-ray of the ocean

Scientists have just detected a major change to the Earth's oceans linked to a warming climate

Ocean acidification: present conditions and future changes in a high CO2 world  

From decline to recovery: a rescue package for the global ocean

Scripps Researcher Helps Raise Deep Concerns about Deep Sea

Earth's oceans could look completely different by the end of the century

Global change and the future of ocean: a grand challenge for marine sciences

Assessing ocean changes without data centers    Video interview part 1    part 2

The importance of ocean mixing from waves, eddies and tides:

Modeling tides and vertical tidal mixing: A reality check    Mesoscale ocean eddies impact weather

Ocean tides and Earth's rotation - a high-resolving ocean model forced by the lunisolar tidal potential 

Mathematics and the ocean: movement, mixing and climate modelling    The carbon dioxide loop

Breaking internal tides keep the ocean in balance    Analyzing ocean mixing reveals insight on climate

Scientists track speed of powerful internal waves    The ocean's hidden waves show their power

Dissecting the ocean's unseen waves to learn where the heat, energy and nutrients go

Analysis and interpretation of frequency-wave number spectra of young wind waves

Breaking deep-sea waves reveal mechanism for global ocean mixing

Star-shaped waves spotted in shaken fluid     Creating waves that are frozen in time

Chasing the black holes of the ocean   Coherent Lagrangian vortices: the black holes of turbulence

The ocean bottom:

New digital seafloor geology map uses artificial intelligence and big data to boost understanding of seafloor

New global analysis reveals amount of sediment on the ocean floor

Touring the ocean bottom    Mapping marine landscapes in the deep ocean    Seabed lithology

General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO)    NOAA Marine Geology & Geophysics

Why the first complete map of the ocean floor is stirring controversial waters 

Large submarine landslides on continental slopes

Seamounts as Conduits for Massive Fluid, Heat and Solute Fluxes on Ridge Flanks

A deep mantle origin for the primitive signature of ocean island basalt

Mariana Trench, seven miles deep, the ocean is still a noisy place

Scientific mission will explore one of the deepest ocean trenches

Census of seafloor sediments in the world's oceans      GPlates webportal

New information about sub-seafloor structure    Seabed 2030 

The sea floor is dissolving, thanks to human activity  

MH370 search reveals hidden undersea world    The data behind the search for MH370

The ocean economy:

EEZ (Wikipedia)    UN Exclusive Economic Zones  

Building a blue economy - part 1     Part 2     Part 3

Achieving a safe and just future for he ocean economy

A clearer future for underwater exploration

The Digital Ocean: our next information frontier

Satellite oceanography daproducers and users connect

Scientists caution against exploitation of deep ocean    Methane Escape Research

Scientists' perspectives on global ocean research priorities

Oceans may be large, overlooked source of hydrogen gas

WWF: Reviving the ocean economy: the case for action -2015

Warming of the oceans and implications for the (re)insurance industry

Catlin seaview survey   UN World Ocean Assessment    Valuing the ocean

Protecting the deep sea: a call for balancing mining and ecosystem protection

Where iron and water mix: hydrothermal vents a significant source of iron in the oceans

A new threat to oceans: deep-sea mining for precious metals    The deepest dig - ocean mining

Seabed mining could destroy ecosystems    

Ocean monitoring, measuring and mapping:

GOOS: Global Ocean Observing System    Engineers hand 'cognitive' control to underwater robots

Using Atmospheric Potential Oxygen to Gain Insight into Climate Drivers of Ocean Biogeochemistry

Need for monitoring and maintaining sustainable marine ecosystem services

Vitamin water: measuring essential nutrients in the ocean    Salinity matters

'Chemical atlas' provides unique understanding of ocean geochemistry

How to monitor global ocean warming- without harming whales

Deep floats reveal complex ocean circulation patterns

Sea Ice Historical Forecast Project (Ice-HFP)

Decoding material fluxes in the tropical ocean

Filling the gaps in ocean maps

The oceans and climate change:

Oceans and climate

The deep blue sea is getting bluer

Can we predict the future of ocean CO2 uptake?

Ocean spray: an outsized influence on weather & climate

Surface of the ocean affects climate more than thought

Invisible barrier on ocean surface can reduce carbon uptake

Ocean circulation rethink solves climate conundrum

Massive study is first to explore historical ocean response to abrupt climate change

Scientists discover link between climate change and ocean currents during last 6 million years

Smothered oceans: extreme oxygen loss in oceans accompanied past global climate change

Sailing through changing oceans: ocean and polar life and environmental sciences on a warming planet

Lab experiments question popular measurements of ancient ocean temperatures

How variable are ocean temperatures?    Deep oceans warming at alarming rate

How oceans could change if we reverse anthropogenic warming

Ancient pool of warm water questions current climate models

Ocean temperatures faithfully recorded in mother-of-pearl

'Ice Age blob' of warm ocean water discovered south of Greenland

Tracking 'marine heatwaves' since 1950 and how 'the blob' stacks up

National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. Naval Forces

Ocean chemistry:

How ocean chemistry affects climate change    Climate change will upset vital ocean chemical cycles

Vertical distribution of coccolithophores PIC, POC, biogenic silica, chlorophyll throughout the global ocean 

The chemical memory of seawater: scientists examine the biomolecules dissolved in the ocean and read them like a history book of the sea

Contrasting the surface ocean distribution of bromoform and methyl iodide: implications for boundary layer physics, chemistry and climate

Ocean's most oxygen-deprived zones to shrink under climate change

Scientists discover nearly 200,000 types of ocean viruses

Ocean Oxygen:

Ancient ocean deoxygenation provides an urgent warning

Geologists confirm oxygen levels of ancient oceans    Jurassic drop in ocean oxygen lasted a million years  

A Looming Oxygen Crisis and Its Impact on World Oceans    Respiratory disorder in the ocean

Ocean Acidification:

Smithsonian description of Ocean Acidification

Ocean Acidification    Ocean Acidification   Ocean Acidification in Deep Time

Scientists analyse the extent of ocean acidification

Earliest life emerged in mildly acidic oceans

Comprehensive Study Makes Key Findings of Ocean pH Variations

Oceans aciidifying faster than thay have in the past 300 mllion years

Ocean acidification research should increase focus on species' ability to adapt

Ocean Acidification rate may be unprecedented   Ocean acidification: hard to digest

New challenges for ocean acidification research    Watch ocean acidification in real time

First evidence of ocean acidification affecting live marine creatures in the Southern Ocean

Marine reserves, hydrographic organizations and UN Conventions:

Evolving science of marine reserves: new developments

International Hydrographic Organization 

New UK national centre covers marine science from the coast to the deep ocean

Scripps scientists explore the mysteries and challenges of the deep sea    Woods Hole Research Center 

UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)


Pacific Ocean:

The long memory of the Pacific Ocean

Tropical Pacific Observing System project 2020

Deep-sea streaming: 500-mile NEPTUNE cabling brings Internet to the ocean floor

Underwater lab: UW researchers install 14 miles of cable, acmeras, sensors on ocean floor

Ocean Observatories Initiatives: cable array brings the ocean to your living room 24/7

Microfossils illuminate ancient ocean currents

Study explains Pacific equatorial cold water region

East of Japan, upper ocean waves follow a seasonal cycle

North America:

Salish Sea:

Perceptions of change in Puget Sound

Atlantic Ocean:

Northwest Atlantic Ocean may get warmer, sooner

Sea surface temperature reaches record highs on US northeast continental shelf

Aluminium in an ocean GCM compared with West Atlantic Geotraces cruises

Caribbean Sea:

Caribbean Sea acts like a whistle which can be 'heard' from space

Sargasso Sea:

Big changes in the Sargasso Sea


Baltic Sea:

Nordic seas cooled 500,000 years before global oceans

Mediterranean Sea:

Early Holocene Eastern Mediterranean ocean climate and the stability of its overturning circulation

Growing Antarctic ice sheet caused ancient Mediterranean to dry up

Central Asia:

Aral Sea:

The future of the Aral Sea lies in transboundary cooperation

Indian Ocean:

Marine forecasting on the horizon for Indian Ocean Rim

Origin of Indian Ocean Seamount Province by shallow recycling of continental lithosphere

The data behind the search for MH370

Southern Circumpolar Ocean:

The global influence of localized dynamics in the Southern Ocean

The International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean

Miixing it up: study provides new insight into Southern Ocean behaviour

Latest Southern Ocean research shows continuing deep ocean change

Massive Southern Ocean current discovered    

Notorious Southern Ocean current far stronger than previously thought

New discovery of how carbon is stored in the Southern Ocean

In the Southern Ocean, a CO2 mystery comes clear

What kind of iron is in the Southern Ocean?

Antarctic bottom waters freshening at unexpected rate