10,000 years of volcanic eruptions

Where are most of Earth's volcanoes?

An expedition to the Earth's fiery heart

Volcanic unrest - from science to society

10 things you didn't know about volcanoes

Every land volcano on Earth to be monitored from space

Satellite observations could help forecast an eruption's end

Volcanoes on borders: a scientific and (geo) political challenge

Great challenges in volcanology - how does the volcano factory work?

The birth of volcanoes:

The complicated birth of a volcano

Scientists discover a new way volcanoes form

New insights into processes that cause volcanism

Geophysicists challenge traditional theory underlying the origin of mid-plate volcanoes

Supervolcanoes & Supereruptions:


The massive volcano that scientists can't find

What is a supervolcanoe? What is a supereruption?

Indonesia's Somalas volcano kick-started Little Ice Age

NASA;s ambitious plan to save Earth from a supervolcano

Colossal volcano behind 'mystery' global cooling finally found

The volcano that shrouded the Earth and gave birth to a monster

Volcanic Risk:

Age and foaming: how to predict when a volcano will erupt

Communicating volcanic risk: lava, eruptions and uncertainty

Global volcanic hazards and risks    Reading the Earth's LIPS

Crtical volcanology? Thinking holistically about risk and uncertainty 

New study analyses volcanic fatalities in more detail than ever before    

High-risk volcanoes in populated areas    World-first volcano risk assessment system    

Hawai'i's role in reducing volcanic risk around the world    30 years saving lives from volcanoes

Scientists' views about lay perceptions of volcanic hazard and risk    

The influence of probabalistic volcanic hazard map properties on hazard communication

Reducing risks from lahar hazards: concepts, case studies, the roles for scientist

Study suggests ample warning of supervolcano eruptions

Volcanic Ashfall:

The destructive power of volcanic ash fall

PVAHA: Probabilistic Volcanic Ash Hazard Analysis    

An online ashfall reporting tool    Volcanic ash fall hazard and risk 

The role of gravitational instabilities in deposition of volcanic ash

Weather forecast model predicts complex patterns of volcanic ash dispersal

Eruptions, early warning, monitoring and forecasting:

Volcanic eruptions that changed human history    The calamilty of eruptions, or an eruption of benefits?

How to recognise where a volcano will erupt    Forecasting volcanic eruptions with AI

How do you forecast eruptions at volcanoes that sit 'on the cusp' for decades?

Inconvenient, apocalyptic, or in between? Why we shouldn't be complacent about volcanic eruption

Timescales of water accumulation in magmas and implications for short warning times pf exploseive eruptions

'Crystal clocks' help with volcanic hazard management & better forecasting eruptions

Eruptions, earthquakes and emissions    Volcano eruptions have deep origins,

Training in crisis communicationand volcanic eruption forecasting

Merged satellite, ground data may forecast volcanic eruptions

Probing magma reservoirs to improve volcano forecasts 

A promising new tool for forecasting volcanic hazards

Volcano music could help scientists monitor eruptions

Detecting hydrothermal vents in volcanic lakes

AI fit to monitor volcanoes

Volcano topography can distort ground deformation data 

Exhaling Earth: scientists closer to forecasting volcanic eruptions 

Before the Explosion – Volcano’s Warning Tremors Explained

Clues from past volcanic explosion help model future activity

Predicting the end of lava flow-forming eruptions from space

Can volcanic gas levels predict an eruption

Can earthquakes trigger volcanic eruptions?

Tidal cycles could help predict eruptions 

New trigger for volcanic eruptions discovered using jelly and lasers

Scientists identify trigger for explosive volcanic eruptions

Frictional heat is a trigger for explosive eruptions

Sound waves help scientists track volcanic eruptions

Volcanic lightning can help warn of dangerous eruptions    

Seismologists ask: how close are we to an eruption?

Ground-breaking work sheds new light on volcanic activity

Super-eruptions may give only a year's warning before they blow

Secret of supervolcano found in tiny crystals  

Autopsy of an eruption: linking crystal growth to volcano seismicity

An analysis of the issuance of volcanic alert levels during volcanic crises

Study advances understanding of volcanic eruptions   Lessons of volcanic eruptions

Locating the depth of magma supply for volcanic eruptions (insights from Mt. Cameroon)

First eyewitness accounts of mystery volcanic eruption    A new type of volcanic eruption 

Doomsday volcanoes: next large volcanic eruption on the planet could kill 1 million people

Visualising one of the most hazardous formations in Nature

Super-eruptions may have surprisingly short fuses   Mega volcanoes may be 'predicted' 

Earth's spin and volcanic eruptions: evidence for mutual cause-and-effect interactions?

A satelite view of volcanoes finds the link between ground deformation and eruption

Harnessing remote infrasound to study volcanic eruptions

Taking the 'pulse' of volcanoes using satellite images

Volcanic plumbing provides clues on eruptions and earthquakes

Are we prepared for the next mega-eruption?    

Fourty years of plume research   Mantle plumes persevere

When magma prevents volcanic eruptions   

Seafloor volcanoes:    

The emergence and growth of a submarine volcano: the Kameni Islands, Santorini( Greece)

Giant rhyolite lava dome formation after 7.3 ka supereruption at Kikai Caldera, SW Japan     

Extinct undersea volcanoes squashed under Earth's crust cause tsunami quakes

100 million year old extinct volcano discovered beneath Pacific Ocean

A massaive underwater volcanic eruption is captured in real time

Ocean volcano may be largest on Earth, biggest in solar system

Sound of the sea solves decades-old supervolcano mystery

Undersea volcano gave off signals before eruption in 2011

How productive are the ore factories in the deep sea?

Tamu Massif may not be a supervolcano after all

The Geological History of Deep-Sea Volcanoes

An eruption mechanism for undersea volcanoes

Seafloor volcano pulses may alter climate

Masses of methane from mud volcanoes

Space volcanism:

Space volcanoes

How Earth volcanes offer a window into the evolution of life and the Solar System

Chemistry of magma, lava, ash & emissions:

Scientists persuade volcanoes to tell their stories    How pre-eruption collisions effect what exits a volcano

Are volcano releases mix of material from Earth's mantle and crust?    A look inside volcanic flows

Studying ancient Earths geochemistry    Volcanic emissions: more than meets the eye?

Scientists discover caauses of deadliest volcano hazards

The 'universal break-up criterion' of hot, flowing lava

Volcanologists: magma is wetter than we thought

Volcanic rock and gas ride on a carpet of air

Volcano breath: measuring sulfur dioxide from space 

Drones swoop in to measure gas belched from volcanoes

Geoscientists collaborate to understand silicic magma systems

Properties of magma influence forecasts    How much magma is hiding beneath our feet?

Magma can survive in upper crust for hundreds of millennia    Geodynamics: Christmas recycling 

X-rays probe the soft hotspot volcanoes    Volcanic plumbing exposed    Chemistry trick kills controversy

Water and lava, but - curiously - no explosion    Volcanoes deliver two flavors of water    

Limestone assimilation under volcanoes helps understand Earth's carbon cycle

Supervolcanic ash can turn to lava miles from eruption   Supervolcano eruption mystery solved

How rivers of hot ash and gas move when a supervolcano erupts    Volcano's toxic gas output revealed

Catastrophic debri avalanches - a second volcanic hazard    Sensitivity to volcanic field boundary     

Understanding the copper heart of volcanoes    Sulphur mining in an active volcano

The wprld's largest diamonds reveal secrets of the inner Earth    

Impact of volcanic eruptions on climate & ozone layer:

Investigating the effect of volcanoes on climate    Volcanoes cause climate gas concentrations to vary    

Volcanic gases could deplete ozone layer     Eruptions impacts on world rivers

Unusual volcanic episodes rapidly triggered Little Ice Age, researchers find

Small volcanic eruptions and the stratospheric sulphate aerosol burden

Tree rings may underestimate climate response to volcanic eruptions

Super volcanic eruptions interrupt ozone layer recovery

Rewriting the history of volcanic forcing during the past 2000 years

Does water vapor from volcanic eruptions cause climate warming?

Climate change may prevent volcanoes from cooling the planet

Satellite research reveals smaller volcanoes could cool climate

Very large volcanic eruptions could lead to ice sheet instability

Volcanic eruptions stir an already complex atmosphere

Volcanic eruptions drove ancient global warming event

Massive Antarctic volcanic eruptions linked to abrupt Southern Hemisphere climate changes

Ancient Irish texts show volcanic link to cold weather

Ancient flood volcanoes could have altered climate

Volcano related profiles, projects, programs & data:

Global database on large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions (LaMEVE)    Global Volcanism Program

Vhub: a knowledge management system to facilitate online collaborative volcano modeling & research

World's largest volcano now named Tamu Plateau    The 40,000 mile volcano

World's longest continental volcano track found in Australia

Twin volcanic chains above a single hotspot with distinct roots    

BBC Audio slideshow: Volcano visitors   Fiery volcano offers geologic glimpse into land that time forgot 

MIAVITA: Mitigate and Assess risk from volcanic Impact on terrain and human Activities

WOVODAT: Build it and they will come    The FutureVolc  Project     Josef Dufek's website

Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program    Global Volcano Model 

Dangers to aircraft traffic posed by volcanic clouds:

Flight safety and volcanic ash    Satellite data used for mitigating aviation related volcanic hazards

How Qantas and other airlines decid whether to fly near volcanoes

Volcanic ash impact on air travel could be reduced says new research

Visualizing volcanic clouds in the atmosphere and their imppact on air traffic

Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions  

Novel ash analysis validates volcano no-fly zone    NASA flies unmanned aircraft into volcanic plume

Encounters of Aircraft with Volcanic Ash Clouds: A Compilation of Known Incidents, 1953–2009

Can we predict how volcanic ash disperses after an eruption?    Don't build your model on sand!

In a warming world, keeping the planes running  

Regional issues:


What led to the largest volcanic eruption in human history?

URI scientists model the Anak Krakatau volcano, tsunami to better prepare US for future tsunamis 

Why the 'Child of Krakatau' is still dangerous    

Lava pancakes beneath Mt.Toba (Indonesia)

Revolutionizing volcano monitoring in Indonesia

Source of the great A.D.1257 mystery eruption unveiled, Samalas volcano, Indonesia

Life-saving technology provides alert as Bali's Mount Agung spews ash, raises alarm

Scientists fear major volcanic eruption in the Philippines

Pinatubo 25 years later: eight ways the eruption broke ground

Simulation of the climate impact of Mt. Pinatubo eruption using ECHAM5

Korea, Japan to Monitor Volcanic Activity on Mt. Baekdu    A visit to North Korean volcano Paektu

Source and path of magma for volcanoes in the subduction zone of northeastern Japan

How many explosive eruptions are missing from the geologic record? Analysis of the quaternary record of large magnitude explosive eruptions in Japan 

Pressure in Mt. Fuji is now higher than last eruption     

Mt Fuji eruption would paralyze Tokyo    Ash could paralyze Tokyo if Mt Fuji erupts

Two active volcanoes in Japan may share a magma source   

CNN video - Mt Ontake and possible Fuji eruption

Re-awakening volcanic activity in China    Ancient ash volcanoes entombed Chinese dinosaurs

Crack in Pacific seafloor caused volcanic chain to go dormant


Government ranks 18 US volcanoes as 'very high threat'

US readies health response for the next big eruption 

US national volcano warning system gains steam

2018 update to the USGS National Volcanic Threat Assessment

California's exposure to volcanic hazards

Alaska volcano researchers refine 'hearing' to find eruptions

Volcanic thunder from explosive eruptions at Bogoslof Volcano, Alaska

Yellowstone supervolcano may have formed in a completely different way to how we thought

Huge Volcano Sleeps Under Yellowstone    Supervolcanoes: Not a threat for 2012

The Yellowstone supervolcano is a disaster waiting to happen

Pinpointing the trigger behind Yellowstone's last supereruption

Yellowstone: the super-volcano that could blow up America

Yellowstone supereruption would send ash across North America

Study challenges widely accepted theory of Yellowstone formation

Mid-Miocene record of large-scale Snake River like explosive volcanism on Yellowstone hotspot track

BYU geologists discover 'supervolcano' in Utah: past eruption superseded Yellowstone

Scientists see deeper Yellowstone magma

Scientists find giant mantle plume (similar to Yellowstone) under Antarctica

Waiting for Death Valley's Big Bang: a volcanic explosion crater may have future potential 

Thermal, deformation, and degassing remote sensing time series (CE 2000-2017) at 47 most active volcanoes of Latin America 

The surprising threat from Mexico's awakened volcano

Learning from the 'El Fuego' volcano, Guatamala

German satellites could help Chile predict natural disasters

Colombia: the volcano that changed the course of disaster risk management

Magma intrusion is likely source of Columbia-Ecuador border quake swarms

Dynamic and extensive risk arisinf from volcanic ash impacts on agriculture (Caribbean and Ecudor)

Highly explosive volcanism at Galapagos

3D model reveals new information about iconic volcano Ardnamurchan 

Columbia: quakes, mudslides, an acgtive volcano - inside the world's riskiest city

Ubinas: the evolution of the historically most active volcano in Southern Peru

Potentially active volcanoes of Peru

Hawaii & Pacific:

Four ways Kilauea is redrawing the map

Real-time observations explain magma dynamics of Kilauea's 2018 eruption

USGS led public video conference regarding the Kilauea eruption of April-May 2018

USGS Volcanic hazard at the summit of Kilauea June 29, 2018 update

Thermal maps reveal the vast network of lava flows

A new tool for studying eruptions like Kilauea    A Kilauea eruption like no other 

The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory    Two-faced Kilauea volcano exposed

'Paradise tax': the price Hawaiians are prepared to pay for living near volcanoes

Observing and forecasting vog dispersion from Kilauea Volcano.Hawaii

Continuous monitoring of Hawaiian volcnoes with thermal cameras

Study explains the connection between Hawaii's dueling volcanoes

Extrusive volcanism formed the Hawaiian Islands    Hawaii: a hole in Earth's surface?

Lava Fingerprinting Reveals Differences Between Hawaii's Twin Volcanoes    Hawaii: when lava meets sea

Seismic source dynamics of gas-piston activity at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i

Students, researchers at sea working on recently erupted deep-sea volcano

Scripps scientists image deep magma beneath Pacific seafloor volcano 

Role of the deep mantle in generating the compositional asymmetry of the Hawaiian mantle plume

Geochemical zoning of volcanic chains associated with Pacific hotspots

First-ever 3D image created of the structure beneath sierra Negra volcano in the Galapagos

Evidence of large volcanic actvity in the Caribbean uncovered    Undersea volcano in Eastern Caribbean


Could volcanic eruptions in the south-west Pacific save the Great Barrier Reef?

Australian volcanic mystery explained

Scientists map Auckland's volcanic hazard zones

Taupo: Implications of a supervolcano's seismicity

Research explores impacts of hypothetical volcano eruption in Auckland

Bridging Maori indigenous knowledge and western geosciences to reduce social vulnerability 

The spatial & temporal 'cost' of volcanic eruption: Assessing economic impact, etc. Auckland region, NZ


Familiarity With Volcanoes Breeds Content

Tracking the hazards, and benefits, of volcanoes in East Africa

Congo conflict masks deadly volcano threat    Large mantle magma reservoir of Afar, Ethiopia

Structural controls on fluid pathways in an active rift system: a case study of the Aluto volcanic complex

Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of Nabro volcano measured by Northern Hemisphere lidars

Very- and ultra-long- period seismic signals prior to and during caldera formation on La Reunion Island

Volcanoes helped violent revolts erupt in ancient Egypt


Russian volcano eruption ongoing      

Water-magma interaction and plume processes in the 2008 Okmok eruption 

Direct linking of Greenland and Antarctica ice cores at the Toba eruption (74kyr BP)

Volcanic eruptions triggered societal crises during 6th century in the Northern Hemisphere

Operational eruption forecasting at high-risk volcanoes: the case of Campi Flegrei, Naples

Italy's Campi Flegrei supervolcano eruption possibly closer than thought

GeoSEA array records sliding of Mount Etna's southeatern flank

Scientists create world's first 3D thermal of volcano

Europe's most dangerous supervolcano is reawakening just in time for Christmas

A supervolcano caused the largest eruption in European history. Now it's stirring again

Active volcanism found under the heart of northwest Europe

Geodetic evidence for a bouyant mantle plume beneath the Eifel volcanic area, NW Europe  

Dating the ancient Minoan eruption of Thera using tree rings

Europe's age of inferno: how a volcano swallowed the Western world

Why 536 was 'the worst year to be alive' 

Forecasring magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece

Santorini sees growth spurt    Santorini volcano expands


Possible magma accumulation beneth Mt Thorbjorn on Reykjaynes peninsula

More than 30,000 earthquakes trace the movement of magma in Iceland

Scientists observe the Earth grow a new layer under an Icelandic volcano

Climatic control on Icelandic volcanic activity during the mid-Holocene

Estimating the frequency of volcanic ash clouds over Northern Europe

How Icelandic volcano issued warnings months before its eruption

Visualizing the shaking rage of Iceland's Bardarbunga volcano

Scotland to monitor pollution from Iceland's volcanoes

Icelandic volcano sits on massive magma hotspot

Time-bomb? Iceland volcano eruption mystery

When the ice melts, the Earth spews fire

Iceland volcanoes said growing threat

Eyjafjallajokull's plume is electrified


New Antartic rift data has implications for volcanic evolution

Scientists discover 91 volcanoes below Antarctic ice sheet

Underwater Antarctic volcanoes discovered in the Southern Ocean

Researchers discover volcanic heat source under major Antarctic glacier

Predicting unpredictability: information theory offers new way to read ice cores


With 8 threatening volcanoes, USGS says California desrves close monitoring

Mount Rainer

Mount Rainier, at 4392 m the highest peak in the Cascade Range, forms a dramatic backdrop to the Puget Sound region. Large Holocene mudflows from collapse of this massive, heavily glaciated andesitic volcano have reached as far as the Puget Sound lowlands. The present summit was constructed within a large crater breached to the northeast formed by collapse of the volcano during a major explosive eruption about 5600 years that produced the widespread Osceola Mudflow. Rainier has produced eruptions throughout the Holocene, including about a dozen during the past 2600 years; the largest of these occurred about 2200 years ago.

The present-day summit cone is capped by two overlapping craters. Extensive hydrothermal alteration of the upper portion of the volcano has contributed to its structural weakness; an active thermal system has caused periodic melting on flank glaciers and produced an elaborate system of steam caves in the summit icecap. Reported 19th-century eruptions have not left identifiable deposits, but a phreatic eruption may have taken place as recently as 1894 (GVP)

Based on historical evidence, Mount Rainer last erupted on November 21, 1894. The eruption ended on December 24, 1894 and had VEI index of 1.   

New View of Rainier’s Volcanic Plumbing

Washington's volcanoes get more scientific scrutinty

Volcanoes, including Mt Hood, can go from dormant to active quickly

Variations in community exposure to lahar hazards from multiple volcanoes in Washington State, USA

Mount St Helens' next eruptiion could be massive - 4 magma chambers found lurking under the volcano

BC's distinctive tuya volcanoes reveal glacial, paleo-climate secrets

Alaska Volcano Observatory    No redoubt: volcanic eruption forecasting improved

Alaska volcano's screams may explain eruption's awesome power 

Cascade Mountain Image

Mount Saint Helens

Prior to 1980, Mount St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mount St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. Prior to 2200 years ago, tephra, lava domes, and pyroclastic flows were erupted, forming the older St. Helens edifice, but few lava flows extended beyond the base of the volcano. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the north flank, and were witnessed by early settlers (GVP).

Last GVP weekly report database addition was made in the week of February 9 - February 15, 2011:

CVO reported that on February 14 a M 4.3 earthquake near Mount St. Helens, felt widely throughout SW Washington and NW Oregon, was followed over the next few hours by several aftershocks up to M 2.8. The three largest aftershocks were also felt. All of the earthquakes were located about 8 km N of the crater, near the Johnston Ridge Observatory, at depths of about 4-6 km. CVO also noted that a previous earthquake swarm had occurred in the same area on January 29. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Normal and the Aviation Color Code remained at Green. 

Last eruption at Mount Saint Helens occurred from October 1, 2004 to January 27, 2008 (+- 10 days). It had VEI index of 2

Mount St Helens isn't where it should be . Scientists may finally know why.

40 years later, lessons for the pandemic from Mount St. Helens

40 years later, Mt. St. Hemens looms as a marvel and a threat

New imagery solves mystery pf why Mount St Helens is out of line with other volcanoes

Small magnitude earthquake swarm continues at Mount St Helens 

Mount Meager: over the volcano