Special Phenomena

Within most branches of Earth Science there are regularly occuring large-scale natural phenomena that are clearly identifiable. Examples of such phenomena are listed below. A comprehensive Earth Systems Model will need to account for such special phenomena in order for the model to be given high credance, and for it to be considered complete and accurate.

View details Special Phenomena

Thermohaline Circulation (THC) Antarctic Circumpolar Current Equatorial Thermocline El Niño, La Niña (ENSO)
Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP)/ Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North American Mode (NAM)
Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) South Pacific Convergent Zone (SPCZ) Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO)
Rossby Waves Kelvin Waves Jet Streams Polar Vortex
Convection Evaporation Heat Flow: convection, conduction, radiation Winds: Trade, Horse Latitudes, the Doldrums, other
Windstorms Other Winds Thunderstorms Squall Lines
Storm Tracks & Storm Surges Turbulence Tornadoes Tropical Cyclones, Hurricanes & Typhoons
Precipitation Waterspouts Atmospheric Rivers Hot Towers
Lightning & Sprites Rainbows Aerosols Clouds & Contrails
Atmospheric Circulation Monsoons Blocking Teleconnections
Forcing Factors Feedbacks Desertification Dust and Sandstorms
Wildfires, Bushfires & Peat Fires Haze Heatwaves Floods & Droughts
Mudslides & Landslides Avalanches Glaciers Glacial Cycles
Icebergs Thermal Springs Properties of Water & Ice Ocean Eddies, Gyres and Upwelling
Undersea Rivers Undersea Craters Ocean Dead Zones Rifts and Seamounts
Subduction Earthquakes & Seismic Waves Water Waves Tsunamis
Seiches (Lake Tsunamis) Sea Level Rise (SLR) Ice Ages Interglacial Periods
Great Oxygenation Event Ozone Hole Solar Irradiance Tipping Points
Mass Extinction Events Impact Craters Magnetism & Electromagnetism Schumann Resonances
Auroras Airglow Magnetic Pole Shift Geomagnetic Reversal
Milankovitch Cycles