Special Phenomena

Within most branches of Earth Science there are regularly occuring large-scale natural phenomena that are clearly identifiable. Examples of such phenomena are listed below. A comprehensive Earth Systems Model will need to account for such special phenomena in order for the model to be given high credance, and for it to be considered complete and accurate.

View details Special Phenomena

Thermohaline Circulation (THC) Antarctic Circumpolar Current Equatorial Thermocline El Niño, La Niña (ENSO)
Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP)/ Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North American Mode (NAM)
Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) South Pacific Convergent Zone (SPCZ) Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO)
Rossby Waves Kelvin Waves Jet Streams Polar Vortex
Convection Winds: Trade, Horse Latitudes, the Doldrums, other Thunderstorms & Windstorms Storm Tracks & Storm Surges
Atmospheric Rivers Tornadoes Waterspouts Tropical Cyclones, Hurricanes & Typhoons
Hot Towers Lightning & Sprites Rainbows Evaporation
Precipitation Heat Flow: convection, conduction, radiation Aerosols Clouds & Contrails
Monsoons Turbulence Other Winds Atmospheric Circulation
Blocking Teleconnections Forcing Factors Feedbacks
Desertification Dust and Sandstorms Wildfires, Bushfires & Peat Fires Haze
Floods, Heatwaves & Droughts Mudslides & Landslides Avalanches Glaciers
Glacial Cycles Icebergs Thermal Springs Properties of Water & Ice
Ocean Eddies, Gyres and Upwelling Ocean Dead Zones Rifts and Seamounts Subduction
Earthquakes & Seismic Waves Water Waves Tsunamis Seiches (Lake Tsunamis)
Sea Level Rise (SLR) Ice Ages Interglacial Periods Great Oxygenation Event
Ozone Hole Solar Irradiance Tipping Points Mass Extinction Events
Impact Craters Magnetism & Electromagnetism Schumann Resonances Auroras
Airglow Magnetic Pole Shift Geomagnetic Reversal Milankovitch Cycles