Special Phenomena

Within most branches of Earth Science there are regularly occuring large-scale natural phenomena that are clearly identifiable. Examples of such phenomena are listed below. A comprehensive Earth Systems Model will need to account for such special phenomena in order for the model to be given high credance, and for it to be considered complete and accurate.

View details Special Phenomena

Thermohaline Circulation (THC) Antarctic Circumpolar Current Equatorial Thermocline El Niño, La Niña (ENSO)
Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP)/ Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North American Mode (NAM)
Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) South Pacific Convergent Zone (SPCZ) Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO)
Rossby Waves Kelvin Waves Jet Streams Polar Vortex
Convection Evaporation Heat Flow: convection, conduction, radiation Winds: Trade, Horse Latitudes, the Doldrums, other
Windstorms Other Winds Thunderstorms Squall Lines
Storm Tracks & Storm Surges Turbulence Tornadoes Tropical Cyclones, Hurricanes & Typhoons
Precipitation Waterspouts Atmospheric Rivers Hot Towers
Lightning & Sprites Rainbows The Carnegie Curve Aerosols
Clouds & Contrails Atmospheric Circulation Monsoons Blocking
Teleconnections Forcing Factors Feedbacks Desertification
Dust and Sandstorms Wildfires, Bushfires & Peat Fires Haze Heatwaves
Floods & Droughts Mudslides & Landslides Avalanches Glaciers
Glacial Cycles Icebergs Thermal Springs Properties of Water & Ice
Ocean Eddies, Gyres and Upwelling Undersea Rivers Undersea Craters Ocean Dead Zones
Rifts and Seamounts Subduction Earthquakes & Seismic Waves Water Waves
Tsunamis Seiches (Lake Tsunamis) Sea Level Rise (SLR) Ice Ages
Interglacial Periods Great Oxygenation Event Ozone Hole Solar Irradiance
Tipping Points Mass Extinction Events Impact Craters Magnetism & Electromagnetism
Schumann Resonances Auroras Airglow Magnetic Pole Shift & Flip
Geomagnetic Reversal Milankovitch Cycles