Special Phenomena

Within most branches of Earth Science there are regularly occuring large-scale natural phenomena that are clearly identifiable. Examples of such phenomena are listed below. A comprehensive Earth Systems Model will need to account for such special phenomena in order for the model to be given high credance, and for it to be considered complete and accurate.

View details Special Phenomena

The Plasmasphere: Solar Irradiance Auroras Airglow - skyglow - STEVE
Ozone Hole The Atmosphere: El Niño, El Niño Modoki, La Niña (ENSO) Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)
Monsoon Intra-Seasonal Oscillation (MISO) Southern Annular Mode (SAM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North American Mode (NAM)
Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) Normal Modes
Gravity Waves Rossby Waves Kelvin Waves South Pacific Convergent Zone (SPCZ)
Polar Vortex Jet Streams Heat Flow: convection, conduction, radiation Convection
Evaporation Wind Walls Winds: Trade, Horse Latitudes, the Doldrums, other Windstorms
Other Winds Thunderstorms Squall Lines Storm Tracks & Storm Surges
Turbulence Tornadoes The Coriolis Effect Hot Towers
Tropical Cyclones, Hurricanes & Typhoons Precipitation Atmospheric Rivers Meteotsunamis
Lightning & Sprites Rainbows Green flashes The Carnegie Curve
Aerosols Clouds & Contrails Atmospheric Circulation Monsoons
Blocking Teleconnections Pink Noise Forcing Factors
Feedbacks Haze Heatwaves The Land
Desertification Dust and Sandstorms Wildfires, Bushfires, Peat Fires, Debris Flows Floods & Droughts
Inundated Land Thermal Springs Mudslides & Landslides The Cryosphere:
Properties of Water & Ice Snowpack Avalanches Ice Caps
Ice Ages Glaciers Glacial Cycles Interglacial Periods
Milankovitch Cycles The Ocean: Icebergs Ice Sheets & Ice Shelves
Antarctic Circumpolar Current Thermohaline Circulation (THC) Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP)/ Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) Equatorial Thermocline
Ocean Eddies, Gyres and Upwelling Undersea Rivers Undersea Craters Undersea Blue Holes
Ocean Dead Zones Rifts and Seamounts Water Waves Tsunamis
Waterspouts Seiches (Lake Tsunamis) Tides Sea Level Rise (SLR)
The Biosphere: Gaia Hypothesis Great Oxygenation Event Tipping Points
Mass Extinction Events The Solid Earth: Earth's spin axis Subduction
Earthquakes & Seismic Waves Elastodynamic Waves Electro-Magnetism: EM properties
Schumann Resonances Magnetic Pole Shift Geomagnetic Reversal Geomagnetic Portals
Magnetic reconnection