Special Phenomena

Within most branches of Earth Science there are regularly occuring large-scale natural phenomena that are clearly identifiable. Examples of such phenomena are listed below. A comprehensive Earth Systems Model will need to account for such special phenomena in order for the model to be given high credance, and for it to be considered complete and accurate.

View details Special Phenomena

Thermohaline Circulation (THC) Antarctic Circumpolar Current Equatorial Thermocline El Niño, El Niño Modoki, La Niña (ENSO)
Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP)/ Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) Monsoon Intra-Seasonal Oscillation (MISO) Southern Annular Mode (SAM)
Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North American Mode (NAM) Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)
Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) Normal Modes Gravity Waves Rossby Waves
Kelvin Waves South Pacific Convergent Zone (SPCZ) Polar Vortex Jet Streams
Heat Flow: convection, conduction, radiation Convection Evaporation Wind Walls
Winds: Trade, Horse Latitudes, the Doldrums, other Windstorms Other Winds Thunderstorms
Squall Lines Storm Tracks & Storm Surges Turbulence Tornadoes
The Coriolis Effect Hot Towers Tropical Cyclones, Hurricanes & Typhoons Precipitation
Waterspouts Atmospheric Rivers Meteotsunamis Lightning & Sprites
Rainbows Green flashes The Carnegie Curve Aerosols
Clouds & Contrails Atmospheric Circulation Monsoons Blocking
Teleconnections Pink Noise Forcing Factors Feedbacks
Desertification Dust and Sandstorms Wildfires, Bushfires, Peat Fires, Debris Flows Haze
Heatwaves Floods & Droughts Inundated Land Thermal Springs
Mudslides & Landslides Properties of Water & Ice Snowpack Avalanches
Ice Caps Glaciers Glacial Cycles Icebergs
Ice Sheets & Ice Shelves Ocean Eddies, Gyres and Upwelling Undersea Rivers Undersea Craters
Undersea Blue Holes Ocean Dead Zones Rifts and Seamounts Subduction
Earthquakes & Seismic Waves Water Waves Elastodynamic Waves Tsunamis
Seiches (Lake Tsunamis) Sea Level Rise (SLR) Tides Ice Ages
Interglacial Periods Gaia Hypothesis Great Oxygenation Event Ozone Hole
Solar Irradiance Tipping Points Mass Extinction Events Earth's spin axis
Magnetism & Electromagnetism Schumann Resonances Auroras Airglow - skyglow - STEVE
Magnetic Pole Shift Geomagnetic Reversal Geomagnetic Portals Magnetic reconnection
Milankovitch Cycles