Special Phenomena

Within most branches of Earth Science there are regularly occuring large-scale natural phenomena that are clearly identifiable. Examples of such phenomena are listed below. A comprehensive Earth Systems Model will need to account for such special phenomena in order for the model to be given high credance, and for it to be considered complete and accurate.

View details Special Phenomena

Thermohaline Circulation (THC) Antarctic Circumpolar Current Equatorial Thermocline El Niño, El Niño Modoki, La Niña (ENSO)
Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP)/ Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) Monsoon Intra-Seasonal Oscillation (MISO) Southern Annular Mode (SAM)
Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North American Mode (NAM) Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)
South Pacific Convergent Zone (SPCZ) Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) Gravity Waves Rossby Waves
Kelvin Waves Jet Streams Polar Vortex Wind Walls
Convection Evaporation Heat Flow: convection, conduction, radiation Winds: Trade, Horse Latitudes, the Doldrums, other
Windstorms Other Winds Thunderstorms Squall Lines
Storm Tracks & Storm Surges Turbulence Tornadoes The Coriolis Effect
Hot Towers Tropical Cyclones, Hurricanes & Typhoons Precipitation Waterspouts
Atmospheric Rivers Meteotsunamis Lightning & Sprites Rainbows
Green flashes The Carnegie Curve Aerosols Clouds & Contrails
Atmospheric Circulation Monsoons Blocking Teleconnections
Pink Noise Forcing Factors Feedbacks Desertification
Dust and Sandstorms Wildfires, Bushfires, Peat Fires, Debris Flows Haze Heatwaves
Floods & Droughts Inundated Land Thermal Springs Mudslides & Landslides
Properties of Water & Ice Snowpack Avalanches Ice Caps
Glaciers Glacial Cycles Icebergs Ice Sheets & Ice Shelves
Ocean Eddies, Gyres and Upwelling Undersea Rivers Undersea Craters Undersea Blue Holes
Ocean Dead Zones Rifts and Seamounts Subduction Earthquakes & Seismic Waves
Water Waves Elastodynamic Waves Tsunamis Seiches (Lake Tsunamis)
Sea Level Rise (SLR) Tides Ice Ages Interglacial Periods
Gaia Hypothesis Great Oxygenation Event Ozone Hole Solar Irradiance
Tipping Points Mass Extinction Events Earth's spin axis Magnetism & Electromagnetism
Schumann Resonances Auroras Airglow - skyglow - STEVE Magnetic Pole Shift
Geomagnetic Reversal Geomagnetic Portals Magnetic reconnection Milankovitch Cycles