Coastal Zones

Where land meets water there are a multitude of dynamics that carve out unique and interesting features, all of which enrich the complexity of Earth's surface structure. The never ending impact of water on rock and sand creates a complex dynamic, rich in special phenomena.

Main Features:

Continental Shelf  -  Wave-cut Platform   -  Headland  -  Isthmus  -  Spit

Island  -  Archipelago  -  Atoll  -  Reef  -  Shoal

Bight  -  Gulf  -  Inlet  -  Bay  -  Fjord

River Delta  -  Estuary  -  Marsh   -  Lagoon

Beach  -  Littoral zone  -  Dune

Tide Pool  -  Blow Hole

Main Processes:

Tidal Effects  -  Wave Action  -  Surf Break  -  Current  -  Rip -  Coastal polynias   

Deposition  -  Inundation  -  Submersion  -  Wind  -  Saltwater Corrosion

Run-ups of unusual size 


A global map of mangrove forest soil carbon at 30m spatial resolution

Mangrove restoration: to plant or not to plant?    Protecting mangroves can lower disaster risks, offer cash

Protecting mangroves cheaper than building coastal protection

Securing the future of mangroves    Storm surge reduction by mangroves

The response of mangrove soil surface elevation to sea level rise

Desert mangroves as a major source of carbon storage   

Whither our mangroves    Mangroves for coastal defense    Mangroves help protect against sea level rise

Coastal wetlands:

Coastal wetlands and flood damage reduction

Many coastal wetlands likely to disappear this century

The Biological Flora of Coastal Dunes and Wetlands: Spartina patens

Coastal marshes more resilient to sea-level rise than previously believed

Coastal flooding and wetland loss in the 21st century: changes under the SRES climate and socio-economic scenarios

Living shorelines::

Future of our coasts: the potential for natural and hybrid infrastrusture to enhance the resilience of our coastal communities, economies and ecosystems

Monitoring coastal zone changes from space    Seagrass saves beaches and money

The effectiveness, costs and coastal protection benefits of natural and nature-based defences

Coastal adaptation strategies handbook 2016    Global risks and research priorities for coastal subsidence

Performance of natural infrastructure and nature-based measures as coastal risk reduction features

Guidance for considering the use of living shorelines    Forests, fruit, and fish could save coastal communities

Biodiversity, ecosystems and coastal zone    Rethinking living shorelines      

Building with nature for coastal resilience   Planning and Design of Tsunami-mitigative Coastal Vegtation Belts 

Managing coasts with natural solutions    Living shorelines can lessen climate change effects

Future of our coasts: the potential for natural and hybrid infrastructure to enhance the resilience of our coastal communities, economies and ecosystems

Estimating global 'blue carbon' emissions from conversion and degradation of vegetated coastal ecosystems 

Coastal water absobing more CO2

Coastal Structures:

Innovative approachs to building resilient coastal infrastructure

'Sandscaping' first for UK in bid to save coastal homes 


Are seawalls the best answer to rising sea levels - or is retreat a better option?

Seawalls, coastal forests in Japan help reduce tsunami damage

Building resilience of the coastal population to natural disaster

Increasing coastal resilience to storms and flooding

Concrete coastlines and marine urban sprawl    Better ways to protect costal communities from storm

Impact of climate change on coastlines:

Leveraging public finance for coastal adaptation   

Prevent climate risk in coasts before it is too late  Can the risk of coastal hazards be better communicated? 

Coastal fog, climate change, and the environment   Coastal and marine ecosystems & Global Climate Change

Global warming next surpprose: saltier beaches    Rising sea level may trigger groundwater floods

Managing coasts under threat from climate change and sea-level rise

IPCC sea-level rise scenarios not fit for purpose for high-risk coastal areas

Addendum to ' Understanding risks in the light of uncertainty: low probability, high-impact events in coastal cities' 

Coastal cities face risk of flood losses    How storm surges and sea-level rise make coastal life risky     

Coastal cities to pay high price for climate change

Climate-change impact assessment for inlet-interrupted coastlines

Coastal erosion a serious threat: expert    Stemming decline of the coastal ocean

Sea defenses not enough to protect delta cities from rising flood risk

Storm wave study could help improve design of coastal defences

Hydro-Meteorological DRR and Climate Change Adaptation for Coastal and Small Island Communities

A multi-dimensional integrated approach to assess flood risk on a coastal city, induced by sea-level rise and storm tides

A flood vulnerability index for coastal cities and its use in assessing climate change impacts    

Ranking of the world's cities most exposed to coastal flooding today and in the future

Ranking port cities with high exposure and vulnerability to climate extremes     

Wave-cut or water-table platforms of rocky coasts and rivers


Wave Overtopping of Levees and Overwash of Dunes

Near-future sea level impacts on coastal dune landscapes

Researchers devise hidden dune filters to treat coastal stormwater runoff 

Barrier islands:

Barrier Islands: Coupling Anthropogenic Stability with Ecological Sustainability

Open-Ocean Barrier Islands: Global Influence of Climatic, Oceanographic, and Depositional Settings


Are methane hydrates dissolving?

Hypoxia and nutrient reduction in the coastal zone

Surprising ecological effects of earthquakes and tsunamis

Yellow detritus in the oceans may help reduce warming

Anthropenic sources of underwater sound can modify how sediment -dwelling invertebrates mediate ecosystem propoerties



Causes  of mangrove deforestation in Southest Asia    Bangaladesh polders under threat

Building Mangrove Greenbelts along Bangladesh's Vulnerable Coastline

Mangrove-planting drones on a mission to restore Myanmar delta 

Sri Lanka's comprehensive mangrove protection project 

A study of the principal marketed value chains derived from the Sundarbans reserved forest

Resilience of tsunami in coastal regions of Kachchh (Indonesia) by use of mangrove best & modelling

In the Philippines, mangroves are a valuable flood defense   

Erosion eats away land along 22% of Thai coastline

More Chinese on the coast, less fish in the sea

Attitudes toward disaster-prevention risk in Japanese coastal areas: analysis of civil preference

Australia, New Zealand & Oceania:

Extreme climate events impact marine habitat forming communities along 45% of Australia's coast

Australia: Managing Our Coastal Zone in a Changing Climate    Seawalls in Australia

Australia: climate change risks to coastal buildings and infrastructure

NZ coastal hazards and cliamte change - guidance fpr local governments   

37,000 Mangroves for Kiribati

The Americas:

Widespread local chronic stressors in Caribbean coastal habitats

Strengthening coastal pollution management in the wider Caribbean Region

At the water's edge: coastal resilience in Granada and St. Vincent and the Grenadines 

Effects of climate change on exposure to coastal flooding in Latin America and the Caribbean

US coastal cities warned of daily high tide floods    US: Surging seas

Building coastal resilience for greater US security

Coastal flooding has surged in US, analysis finds

The Gulf of Mexico at a Glance: A Second Glance

Scientists release recommendations for building land in coastal Louisiana

Many Texas beaches likely to erode, be overwashed, or inundated by Huriicane Harvey    

US North Atlantic coast comprehensive study: resilient adaptation to increasing risk

Nor'easter-iduced coastal erosion hazards: US Mid and Northeast Atlantic coast

New Jersey future: A comprehensive coastal hazard mitigation strategy

New York-New Jersey harbor & tributaries coastal storm risk management report 

Spring rains bring life to Midwest granaries but foster Gulf of Mexico 'dead zone'

Predicting hurricane coastal change    Induced coastal erosion hazards

Topography of Eastern Seaboard muddles ancient sea level changes

US Coastal Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerabilities   

Local factors cause dramatic spikes in coastal ocean acidity

Tools for coastal climate adaptation planning  

US: The National Assessment of Shoreline Change  

US: Historical Shoreline Change along the New England and Mid-Atlantic Coasts

The value of coastal wetlands for flood damage reduction in the Northeatern USA

Sea-llevel rise to drive flooding, regardless of changes in hurricane activity

An Overview of Coastal Land Loss: With Emphasis on the Southeastern United States

California's coast and ocean summary report

Pacific Ocean off California coast turning into desert-like dead zone

An Estimate of the U.S. Population Living in 100-Year Coastal Flood Hazard Areas

Case studies of natural shoreline infrastructure in coastal California

Oregon Sate waters mapping program

70% of beaches erooding on Hawaiian Islands Kauai, Oahu and Maui


The squeeze on Europe's coastline continues

Impacts of Climate Change on Disadvantaged UK Coastal Communities    UK tidal predictions

Creating 'virtual storms' to help design coastal defences and coastal flood warning systems

Flirting with retreat along Britain's battered shores

Managing flood and coastal erosion risks in England

Improving protection of critical infrastructure needs special attention in the Mediterranean

Contributing to successful adaptation to climate change in Mediterranean coastal regions

Balancing the future of Europe's coasts - knowledge base for integrated management

Africa & Middle East:

Managing the growing impacts of development on fragile coastal and marine ecosystems: lessons from the Gulf 

Climate Change Impacts in the Arab Region: Sea level Rise, Coastal Erosion and Human Development

Impact of Climate Change on the Coastal Climate of South-Western Africa

Cost of coastal environmental degradation, multi-hazard assessment/cost benefit analysis for Ghana

Safeguarding the resilence of West African Coasts to climate change - the role of the private sector

Harsh weather cripples fishing and tourism on Cameroon's coast


Computer modelling aids understanding of coastal risks     An Empirical Model to Estimate Overwash

Forecasting and communicating risk of rip currents, wave runup

Time-Integrated Equations and Attractors for Long-Term Modeling of Estuaries

Transverse structure of tidal and residual flow and sediemnt concentration in estuaries    

Practical wind wave modeling    Piecewise Polynomial Expression of Beach Profiles  

Statistics of wave crests from second order irregular wave 3D

Breaking Wave Effects on Wave Boundary Layer and Air-Sea Momentum Flux

Modeling Ocean Tides and Their Energetics in the North Patagonia Gulfs of Argentina

A coupled physical-biological model of the Northern Gulf of Mexico shelf: model description, validation and analysis of phytoplankton variability

Probabilistic coastal vulnerability assessment to storms at regional scale – application to Catalan beaches (NW Mediterranean)