Landscape Formations

The land and soil beneath our feet has been either laid down, built up, or exuded over millions of years. The mapping and naming of its main formations, and a description of the processes involved is covered by the articles below:

Geological time scales    Divisions of geologic time    The geological time spiral - a path to the past

Geological Eras    Earth was barren, mountainless and almost entirely underwater 4.4 billion years ago   

The Layered Earth    Crystal is 'oldest scrap of Earth's crust'

Did global glaciation cause the Great Unconformity?

New research improves understanding of ancient landscapes

New study shows: shows: large landmasses existed 2.7 billion years ago

Why do intercontinental basins subside longer

Geologists prove early Tibetan Plateau was larger than previously known

Study finds order in the apparent randomness of Earth's evolving landscape

Formed by megafloods, this place fooled scientists for decades

Investing in landscapes for integrated, inclusive and climate-resilient development

From rivers to landslides: charting the slopes of sediment transport     Going with the flow? 

Study questions dates for cataclysms on early moon, Earth

Laser beams brighten prospects for cave science 

Explore the ecological tapestry of the world


Valleys    Rifts   Volcanoes  Structural Basin    Sedimentary Basin    Drainage Basin  Plains   Plateau

Resources for teaching structural geology    Teaching geomorphology in the 21st Century     Mineral database

Main Processes:

Erosion    Weathering    State of Flux  Subsidence    Sedimentation    Acidification    Lithification    Petrification

Thermochemistry    Rock Mechanics    Teaching mineralogy    Selective silicate-directed motility in diatoms

Glaciation    More on Glaciation   Subduction    Earthquakes    Ground motion    Rupture    Liquefaction    Tectonics

Special Topics:

Mother Earth gets undressed    Is this the underground Everest? 

Will Earth's grandest canyon keep getting grander

The largest delta plain in Earth's history 

We should not fight nature but join forces

Earth's past gives clues to future changes    Uplifting news in the world of geology

Uncertainty in silicate mineral weathering rate estimates: source partitioning and policy implications

Grand challenges in geomagnetosm and paleomagnetism    Frontiers in geosystems: solving the puzzles    

Magnetic recording in rocks    Unique geologic insights from "non-unique" gravity and magnetic interpretation

Science and user needs for observing global mass transport to understand global change and to benefit society

Landscape configuration is thte primary driver of impacts on water quality associated with agricultural exapnsion

Dynamics of gully side erosion: a case study using tree root exposure data 

New test adds to scientists' understanding of Earth's history, resources

The risk of collapse in abandoned mine sites: the issue of data uncertainty

Subsurface imaging sheds light on Dead Sea sinkholes

The high-pressure dimension in Earth and planetary science

What lies beneath? New survey technique offers detailed picture of our changing landscape    

The Paleoanthropocene - the beginnings of anthrpogenic change    The onset of the Anthropocene   

Archaeology and the Anthropocene    Is old rock really as 'solid as a rock'?

Landscapes in the Anthropocene: state of the art and future directions

Human bioturbation, and the subterranean landscape of the AnthropoceneGround surface temperature and continental heat gain: uncertainties from underground

Early Earth less hellish than previously thought     Geochemistry of igneous rocks

Noble gas constraints on the origin and evolution of Earth's volatiles

Mineral-acqueous solution interfaces and their impact on the environment

Mechanisms behind solid-solid phase transitions discovered    New mineral shows nature's infinite variability

Mineral diversity clue to early Earth chemistry   A tiny grain helps reveal the history of a rock

Diamond Impurities Bonanza for Geologists Studying Earth's History    Fault lines lead to gold

Dazzled by Australia's precious opals    Lightning reshapes rocks at the atomic level

The iron biogeochemical cycle - past and present    Throwing out the textbook: salt surprises chemists

Scientists befuddled by rock containing 30,000 tiny diamonds    Mercury mineral evolution

Researchers discover how soils control atmospheric hydrogen   The fight to preserve our soil

World losing 2,000 hectares of farm soil daily to salt-induced degradation

Biochar alters the resistance and resilience to drought in a tropical soil

Bacteria get new badge as planet's detoxifier    Microbes can create dripstone   

Deserts soak up an amazing amount of CO2    The geological triggers of climate change     

Megafloods - what they leave behind    

Geochemical 'fingerprints' leave evidence that megafloods eroded steep gorge 

River deep, mountain high - new study reveals clues to lifecycle of worlds iconic mountains

The science of sinkholes   The ups and downs of sediments    

Secret soil cracks linger, despite surface sealing

Self-healing landscape: landslides after earthquakes

Landslides linked to plate tectonics create the steepest mountain terrain    Raindrops hitting the slopes

Land cover and land use changes and their Impacts on hydroclimate, ecosystems and society

The emergence of land change science for global environmental change and sustainability

Researchers' chance viewing of river cutoff forming provides rare insight 

Reclamation areas and their development studies by vegetation indices

Green infrastructure and territorial cohesion  

Understanding Earth’s eroding surface with Be 

Monitoring land subsidence from satellite  

Buckling an orogen: the Cantabrian orocline

Caltech-led Team Debunks Theory on End of "Snowball Earth" Ice Age

Early Earth may have been prone to deep freezes, says CU-Boulder study


Managing the land in a changing climate (UK)     The Scandanavian landscape

Landscape processes and landsccape quality in Romania

The big picture: A lithospheric cross-section of the North American continent     The lost world

Bend in Appalachian mountain chain finally explained    More evidence for an ancient Grand Canyon

Association between localized geohazards in West Texas and human actions recognized by Sentinel-1A/B

Mysterious US midcontinent rift is a geological hybrid 

Mining and minerals industry professionals in AUS - adapting to climate risks and extreme weather

Soil and landscape grid of Australia

Beijing sinking more than 10 cm per year

Imaging land subsidence induced  by groundwater extraction in Beijing using satellite radar interferometry

Wind erosion in the Qaidam basin, central Asia: Implications for tectonics, paleoclimate, and the source of the Loess Plateau

Ancient micro-continent under the Indian Ocean identified